Sunday, January 19, 2020
Hawaii's Pearl Harbor is one of the most well known military installations in the world. On December 7, 1941 Japanese fighter planes attacked the United States Naval base Pearl Harbor killing more than 2300 Americans. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto had conceived the surprise attack. Commander Mitsuo Fuchida led the striking force of 353 Japanese aircraft. There had been no formal declaration of war. There were approximately 100 ships of the United States navy present that morning, and it was known as Battleship Row. Battleship Row consisted of battleships, destroyers, cruisers, and other various support ships. During the attack more than 50 percent of the United States pacific fleet was out to sea including carriers. Nearby Hickman Field also fell victim of the surprise attack by the Japanese. 18 Army air corps including bombers, and fighters and attack bombers were destroyed or damaged on the ground during the attack. A few United States fighters struggled into the air against the invaders and gave a good account of themselves. Ground fire and United States pilots from various military installations on the inland of Oahu shot down a total of 29 Japanese fighters. The road to war between Japan and the United States began in the 1930's when differences over China drove the two nations apart. In 1931 Japan conquered Indonesia, which until then had been part of China. In 1937 Japan began a long and ultimately unsuccessful campaign to conquer the rest of China. In 1940 the Japanese government allied their country with Nazi Germany in the Axis Alliance, and, in the following year occupied all of Indonesia. The United States, which had important political and economic interests in East Asia, was alarmed by these Japanese moves. The United States increased military and financial aid to China, created a program of strengthening its military power in the Pacific and cut off the shipment of oil and other raw materials to Japan. Because Japan was poor in natural resources its government viewed these steps, especially the embargo on oil, as a threat to the nations survival. Japans' leaders responded by resolving to seize the resources and territories of Southeast Asia, even though that move would certainly result in war with the United States. The problem with the plan was the danger posed by the United States Pacific Fleet based at Pearl Harbor. Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto commander of the Japanese fleet devised a plan to immobilize the United States fleet at the out set of the war with a surprise attack.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Do Girls in Elementary Schools get better grades. Than boys when the achievement levels are the same?
Marion T. Academy Charter schools are one of the independent public schools in the US. A charter school that establishes each school in a performance contract detailing the scholastic mission, program, goals, and measures of success. They are accountable to their authorizers, parents, and to the public. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s freed from bureaucracy that often found in traditional schools, charters design and deliver programs tailored to educational excellence for the student and community needs.The creation of the charter school legislation is intended to improve student learning; encourage the use of different and innovative or proven school environments in teaching and learning methods; and provide parents and students with improved measures of school performance and greater opportunities in choosing public schools within and outside their school districts; in order to provide a well-educated community. This research will discuss about the following concern namely:Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Problem: Do girl s in elementary schools get better grades than boys even when the achievement level is the same? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Interpretation of data school profile Ã¢â¬ ¢ Measures applied for the problem Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recommendations findings for the problem Page 3 Do girls in elementary schools get better grades than boys even when the achievement level is the same? Studies believe that both genetics and environment are a factor that can make girls more intelligent than the boys; nutrition is also a huge factor, for example, especially during the developmental years of the child.Some individuals are born with more innate math ability than others. Just as some people are born with radically different physical attributes, and capabilities, the same holds true for their mental attributes. Then, environment kicks in, which is also extremely powerful. In regards to whether males have more innate math ability and if females have more innate ability in verbal/language, most of the studies That have supported the h ypotheses that males have a genetic advantage in spatial-visual stuff, and that females have an advantage in language .Early in the 20th century-old study of researchers discovered that all tests of mental ability ranked individuals in about the same way. Although mental tests are often designed to measure specific domains of cognitionÃ¢â¬âverbal fluency, say, or mathematical skill, spatial visualization or memoryÃ¢â¬âpeople who do well on one kind of test tend to do well on the others, and people who do poorly intelligence generally do so across the board. This overlap, or Interco relation, suggests that all such tests measure some global element of intellectual ability as well as specific cognitive skills.In recent decades, psychologists have devoted much effort to test intelligent isolating that general factor, which is abbreviated, from the other aspects of cognitive ability gauged in mental tests. The statistical extraction of intelligent quotient is performed by a techni que called factor analysis. Introduced at the turn of the century by British Page 4 Psychologist Charles Spearman, factor analysis determines the minimum number of underlying dimensions necessary to explain a pattern of intelligence.The Interesting thing about the study was that sex hormones may play a part, which would explain why this could be accounted for partly through genetics, since the hormones kick in at puberty. I think this is obviously just the A general factor suffusing all tests is not, as is sometimes argued, a necessary outcome of factor analysis. No general factor has been found in the analysis of personality tests, for example; instead the method usually yields at least five dimensions (neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness to ideas), each relating to different subsets of tests.But, as Spearman observed, a general factor does emerge from analysis of mental ability tests, and leading psychologists, such as Arthur R. Jensen of the U niversity of California at Berkeley and John B. Carroll of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, have at this point, and goes against much of gender feminism, although not Ã¢â¬Å"classicÃ¢â¬ feminism. According to recent studies, girls outperform boys in primary and secondary school and have higher high school graduation rates and higher rates of college admission.In Arizona, the disparity is startling: Statistics published online by State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Horne show that girls score more than five percent higher on the AIMS reading and writing sections at all four tested grade levels. Schools across America report having high female-to-male ratios on honor rolls and in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate classes, according to The New York Times. For the Class of 2004 in Arizona, graduation rates among white students were 88.7 percent for females and 83. 7 percent for males. The percentage gaps were nearly identical for Hispanic, African-American and Asian-American students. Interpretation of data School profile Page 5 Marion T. Academy Charter School opened in September 2000. The Department of Education and State Board of Education approved this school. The plan for the school was to open with grades K-5 and then add a grade each year until the school was K-7.In September 2000, it opened at a temporary site in modular buildings at 97 Vandever Avenue on the east side of Wilmington, while a permanent facility was under construction. The first year, the school served approximately 400 students in grades K-5. During 2003-04 and the school enrolled approximately 600 students in grades K-8. In summer 2001, the school moved into a permanent facility at 1121 Thatcher Street on the east side of Wilmington, a few blocks away from the original temporary site.To accommodate additional students due to expansion, the school leased additional space at the Police Athletic League Building in Wilmington beginning in school year 2003-04. The schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s charter has been renewed by the Delaware Department of Education and State Board of Education for operation through school year 2007-08. The Secretary of Education and State Board of Education required that the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Marion T. Academy Charter School, offers classes for students in kindergarten through sixth grade.It's classified as being in or near a mid-sized city having a population less than 250,000 With 34 full-time classroom teachers, and the school has an approximate student population of 521 with a student/teacher ratio of 15. 6:1. This school allocates approximately $2,977 per pupil for instructional expenses. It is committed in providing a safe, nurturing and challenging learning environment, with the aim of producing responsible and productive citizens in the future. Marion T. Academy Problems encountered Page 6 Marion T. Academy encountered problems during the operations stated as follows:Ã¢â¬ ¢ Marion T. Academy were not offer ed the school choice option and it failed to attempt to enter into a cooperative agreement with another LEA that would have allowed for parents of students with a home Ã¢â¬Å"feederÃ¢â¬ school identified for the improvement to select choice options and transfer to a school not identified for improvement. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Marion T. Academy did not budget funds for school choice of transportation to meet the federal spending requirement for school choice transportation costs This school does not have adequate funding to accommodate the transportation costsÃ¢â¬ ¢ Associated with the school choice option of students had been offered and had exercised the school choice option. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Two LEASÃ¢â¬â¢ did not comply with supplemental educational service requirements. The SES parental notification letters sent by CSD and IRSD failed to include all of the information required by the ESEA. And the school had procedural failures contributing to the insufficient implementation of SES at one school . Ã¢â¬ ¢ SES Notification Letters Deficiencies, are the delayed sending of important letters to the parents and other important persons for all the activities and all the achievement and problems of the students.
Friday, January 3, 2020
This case goes over how Apple experienced a rough downturn from 1985-1997, but managed to innovate their way out of that challenging time to an incredible turnaround and rise from 1997-2009 (Pearce II Robinson, 2011). This case concludes by mentioning the challenges that Apple faces in the future with other companies imitating their successful trends (Pearce II Robinson). I will discuss two strategic factors that I believe Apple should consider as they establish their long-term strategy for growth. Also, I will mention what two objectives I believe Apple should include in the learning and growth perspective of their balance scorecard. The first strategic factor that I think Apple should consider is product leadership/ development.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The iPhone is an example of Apple tailoring and shaping two current products; they combined the iPod and Mac computer into a phone, which redefined the mobile phone industry (Pearce II Robinson). As Apple plans for the f uture, it is critical that they continue to keep a good relationship with new and current customers by creating new products that will satisfy them, so they dont lose these customers to their competitors. Along with the customer intimacy factor, I think Apple should be more open to partnerships that will contribute to future success (Pearce II Robinson). For instance, partnerships like the one when Steve Jobs took office as CEO, which consisted of Microsoft investing $150 billion into Apple to produce Microsoft office for their Mac computers (Pearce II Robinson). Strategic alliances/ partnerships or joint ventures can help Apple regain some of the market share they lost/ will lose in the future from competitors imitating their products. Two objectives that I believe should be in Apples balanced scorecards learning and growth perspective: improving the use of technology, and increasing workforce knowledge and Skills (Balanced Scorecard Institute, 2011). Improving the use of tec hnology and increasing workforce knowledge andShow MoreRelatedStrategic leadership and innovation at Apple Inc.3160 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesstrategy course work Based on case study Strategic leadership and innovation at Apple Inc. Professor: Simon Bach Nielsen Words: 2855 Submitted by, Suman Copenhagen Business School April 2012 Introduction In this case-based report, 2 out of 3 given questions will be chosen to assess and discuss in details from different perspectives in relation to the case study Ã¢â¬Å"Strategic leadership and innovation at Apple Inc.Ã¢â¬ (De Wit Meyer, 2010, p. 681) (Heracleous, 2010) by usingRead MoreInternal Environment Of Apple Inc. Essay839 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThis section of the report will examine and analyse the internal environment of Apple Inc. which will cover the organisation structure. The internal environment of Apple Inc. would be examined through the use of SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis is used to analyse an organisation s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, in this case, the organisation is Apple Inc. however for the purposes of this section of the report, only the strengths and weaknesses will be examined and analysed. MeyerRead MoreHow The Free Marketplace Within Our Economy933 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageslimit and even closedown a company if the demand for their products isnÃ¢â¬â¢t sustained. The company Apple Inc. is known for their competitive advantages in the current marketplace and worldwide. This company is known for their creation and design of Macintosh personal computers and its signature look is in the shape of an apple, creating instant visible product recognition for customers. Currently, Apple Inc. leads the industry in the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online stores. InRead MoreLeadership Styles From The Television1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbook, will be identified. Leadership theories will be used to evaluate my selected leader to determine what characteristics and leadership abilities helped this leader become successful. I will also include an evaluation of my own leadership style and identify what my individual leadership characteristics are. The plan will be de veloped to improve my leadership style based upon the findings of my chosen leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership style compared to my own. Leadership Style Leadership influences a group ofRead MoreApple Inc. Ã¢â¬Å¡ÃâÃ ¬ Rational System1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesApple Inc. Ã¢â¬â Rational System Apple Inc. was formerly known as Apple Computer Inc for about 3 decades, but removed the word Computer in 2007, to show the company s ongoing progression into the consumer electronics market, in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. 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In the telecom industry, leadership plays a vital role for transformation and trust among the customers and the company (Dowling, S. 2010). The main role is the leadership styles of various leaders in the mobile industry. This paper discusses and analyses the leadership style of Steve Jobs at Apple Incl. Apple is known for high innovation and employee satisfaction. The company is main contributor to the design aspectRead MoreAddressing Power And Political Struggles On Organizational Culture1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthrive on creativity and innovation. This paper begins with an introduction of Apple Inc. and the leadership role available to address the power and political struggles that nurtures unhealthy organizational culture which is preventing the organization from reaching its potential. Then, an overview of the current research theories on empowering leadership and its effect on organizational culture is discussed. The discussion is followed by an analysis of the influence of leadership on organization effectiveness;Read MoreStrategic Choice and Evaluation Essay examples1429 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbusiness (Pearce and Robinson, 2011). Apple is company that is known for their innovation and brand recognition. You can easily identify their products in the stores and they make sure that their products work together. In this market, Apple must focus on how to maintain their status as the next generation technology leaders. There are similar products and new products entering into the market that is challenging Apple to further expand their vision. As Apple continues to grow in this downward marketRead MoreStrategic Analysis of Apple Inc1676 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStrategic analysis of Apple inc * * Table of contents * 1. History of Apple inc 2. Analysis of strategy * 2.1 Applying PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy framework to Apple Inc * 2.2 future strategies 3. Recommendations 4. Leadership/culture 5. Appendix 6. References * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1. History on Apple Inc * Apple Inc. is an American corporation
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Running Head: EFFECTS OF EFFECTUAL DAILY PRAYER 1 EFFECTS OF EFFECTUAL DAILY PRAYER 2 The Effects of Effectual Daily Prayer on Mental Health in Adults Diane T. Bethmann, RN, MSN Student Jennifer M. Wood, MSN, RN Chamberlain College of Nursing Author?s Note Diane T. Bethmann, MSN Student, Chamberlain College of Nursing Jennifer M. Wood, Department of Nursing Faculty, Chamberlain College of Nursing Correspondence concerning this research proposal should be addressed to Diane Bethmann or Jennifer Wood, Department of Nursing, Chamberlain College of Nursing, 5775 Peachtree Dunwoody Rd NE #100, Atlanta, GA 30342. Contact: Diane.Bethmann@my.chamberlain.edu or Jwood@chamberlain.edu. Abstract The implementation of the Affordable Care Act has allowed numerous Americans to receive much-needed healthcare, but numerous gaps in mental health still remain. The baseline measure of adults who self report good or better mental health is 79.1%; the target objective is to increase the amount of adults who self report good or better mental health from 79.1% to 80.1% (Health-Related Quality of Life Well-Being, 2016). In order to further explore this notion, the authors want to examine the effects of implementing effectual daily prayer on mental health in adults as compared to adults who do not effectually pray afterShow MoreRelatedThe Pregnancy Anxiety And Tips For Coping With Childbirth Anxiety9776 Words Ã |Ã 40 Pagesdrugs. In fact, my reaction to Kava is almost identical to my reaction to Valium - I am not conscious of any direct effect but I m able to manage better in situations that would otherwise disturb me. The only big difference I found is that Kava does not help me much with sleeping while even the smallest dose of Valium usually sends me into 9 or more hours of deep sleep. Given its effect on me, I regard Kava as a serious drug and not like a cup of chamomile tea. So I believe in taking the usual precautionsRead MoreImpact of Job Analysis on Job Performance: a Study of Public Sector Organizations of Pakistan25727 Words Ã |Ã 103 Pagesguidance it was impossible to complete this job. I am especially thankful to my wife, daughter and son for providing me with every opportunity and encouraging me to accomplish this job. I am also thankful to my mother and family members for their prayers, loving behaviour and emotional support. Thanks to all my colleagues in Pakistan Scientific and Technological Information Centre, especially Dr. Shaheen Shehzad, Dr. Razi-ul-Hassnain, Mr. Aqil Khan, Mr. Saifullah Azeem, Syed Habib Akhtar Jafri, Mr
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
ButÃ¢â¬ ¦Christmas Was Just 11 Days AwayÃ¢â¬ ¦ Eleven days before Christmas a child is usually happy, energetic, excited, and anxious to see what kinds of pleasant gifts are underneath the tree from Ã¢â¬Å"Santa.Ã¢â¬ No one in Newtown, Connecticut had a clue that 20 of Sandy Hook Elementary SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢s students and six adults wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be seeing that precious day. Unfortunately on this peaceful Friday, December 14th , 2012, Adam Lanza took their lives. His motive is unknown. As police arrived to the scene, Lanza committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. This was the second-deadliest shooting in US history, after the Virginia Tech massacre in 2007. This shooting really hurt the nation and they wanted answers. President Barack Obama then delivered threeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In his first speech, President Barack ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose was to simply offer support, warmth, and to console the Americans in this time of tragedy. He wanted to tell his fellow Americans that he was there to support them. There are two sets of audiences that President Barack Obama was speaking to. Primarily, he was speaking to the press about the tragedy that had just occurred a few hours prior, but his main audience was the Americans shocked by what happened. Imagine sitting in your living room, hearing all these different reports about a massive shooting that killed 20 little children and not knowing what really happened. I was in a clothing store when I heard of the incident, so for the president, only a few hours later, to come on the television and explain what had happened was a slight relief. The technological context of this speech was that this was a press conference, held in the White House in Was hington, D.C on December 14, 2012. The extended scene was for the television and the internet world wide. The logos, ethos, and pathos of the first speech are apparent. President Barack Obama uses logos by explaining the shooting, using facts to better help the Americans understand what had just happened. He uses ethos by very much showing that he is the President of the United States. Just by his professional dress you would assume that he was someone worth listening to. He has the Presidential Seal visible, asShow MoreRelatedSemester Reflection994 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswere writing on Ã¢â¬Å"ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance speechÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Downloading from torrent.Ã¢â¬ During these semester writings, it was quite interesting to learn the use of English writing skills under different circumstances. First, writing a paper on Ã¢â¬Å"ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance speechÃ¢â¬ instilled me with knowledge on how to analyze a speech and present the ideas and themes of the speaker. This assignment was also critical in shaping my critical thinking skills since I was able to critically analyze ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech in relationRead MoreA Linguistic Analysis of ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s Inaugural Address9492 Words Ã |Ã 38 PagesRhythm and Rhetoric: A Linguistic Analysis of ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s Inaugural Address Liilia Batluk Supervisor: Stuart Foster School of Humanities Halmstad University BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis in English Acknowledgment My appreciations to my supervisor Stuart Foster for very helpful advice during the research. Abstract In this essay I shall analyze Barack ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s Inaugural Address, January, 2009 from the perspective of various linguistic techniques. More specifically, I shall propose and focus on the idea that theRead MorePresidential Transitions During The Transition Period Of The Presidency2504 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesclear where this methodic governing originated. Using historical analysis and case studies, this paper attempts to discover the origin of campaign-style governing during the transition period of the presidency. Using the word diagraming software Ã¢â¬Å"Wordle,Ã¢â¬ the research shows trends in certain word usage that provides an in-depth look at rhetorical tools used while in the campaign-style transition. Each president had different speeches analyzed and graphed in order to get a good idea of the time frameRead MoreMedia Propaganda9887 Words Ã |Ã 40 Pageswere hired by then United States President, Woodrow, to participate in theÃ Creel Commission, the mission of which was to sway popular opinion in favor of entering the war, on the side of the United Kingdom. The Creel Commission provided themes for speeches by four-minute men at public functions, and also encouraged censorship of the American press. The Commission was so unpopular that after the war, Congress closed it down without providing funding to organize and archive its papers. The war propagandaRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 Pagesof systematic study. Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB. Demonstrate why few absolutes apply to OB. Identify the challenges and opportunities managers have in applying OB concepts. Compare the three levels of analysis in this bookÃ¢â¬â¢s OB model. MyManagementLab Access a host of interactive learning aids to help strengthen your understanding of the chapter concepts at www.mymanagementlab.com cott Nicholson sits alone in his parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ house in suburban BostonRead MoreManaging Information Technology (7th Edition)239873 Words Ã |Ã 960 PagesNetworking Strategy 321 PART III Acquiring Information Systems 327 Chapter 8 Basic Systems Concepts and Tools The Systems View What Is a System? 329 329 330 Seven Key System Elements Organizations as Systems 330 334 Systems Analysis and Design 335 Business Processes 336 Identifying Business Processes 336 Business Process Redesign 336 Processes and Techniques to Develop Information Systems 339 The Information Systems Development Life Cycle 339 Structured
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Ideally, the key segments selected would have high product penetration and would contain the highest proportions of hea^y users, indicating greater volume potential, a healthy position for the brand or brands under consideration, and favorable brand attitudes. This tpe of ideal situation would make the selection of target segments quite easy. Unfortunately, this ideal situation seldom occurs in reality. The authors experience with life style segmentation has shown that there tend to be three basic results in relationships between life style segments and the marketing data.First, two or three life style segments account for 60% or more of the total business in that category. This means that these segments (types of people) are crucial to success or failure in the category. They are the ones who need to be appealed to, reached through the media, and concentrated on in marketing. Second, a number of segments contain important levels of hea^ users of the category, and a few segments are relatively unimportant. We will write a custom essay sample on Lifestyle or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Here one needs to go beyond the consumption data to examine the relative positions of the brands. Where is a brand strong and where is it weak?If a brand profile matches the heavy-user profiles by segments, then the task becomes one of maintaining the current position and perhaps expanding it. It may be that the segments where a brand is weak are different people with different needs, which might suggest a second brand. If, on the other hand, a brand profile does not match the heavier-using segments very well, there is a need to determine how to capture some business from those segments where competition is doing much better. Third, there are no significant differences in 36 Journal of Markeling, January 1974 onsumption among the segments, but definite attitude, product function, and life style similarities exist between groups of segments. In addition to providing input into the who of a marketing plan, life style segmentation often provides insights into the amount of concentration in a market: how difficult conversion of nonusers might be, the potential role of promotion, and the potential role of new products. For example, in one product categor it was quite evident that ever; brand except one was targeted at the same life style segment. Although important, this segment comprised less than half of the users. Here was an instance where a marketing opportunity existed to target a new brand or reposition an older one at the other, less-concentrated segments.The author is aware of one situation in which life style segmentation was particularly useful in basic media strategy, when an important segment appeared to be more print-oriented and a light daytime television viewer. Using the demographics of that life style segment, further analysis of Life style segmentation is useful because it provides a unique and important v iew of the market. It begins with the peopleÃ¢â¬âtheir life styles and motivationsÃ¢â¬âand then determines how various marketing factors fit into their lives. This perspective often provides fresh insights into the market and gives a more three-dimensional view of the target consumers. This article has described the theory underlying life style segmentation, a two-step analytic process, and uses which have been made of the data. This unique and detailed knowledge of consumers has been a useful input to marketing and advertising planning for many of the companies that have been involved in life style segmentation studies. 9. How Nestle Uses Psychographics, Media Decisions.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Violence In Sports Violence in Sports With the increase in society taking a stance against violence by many people, sports has become an area where some feel that the violent acts such as the hitting and fighting that occurs should be eliminated. You can not change something that has been around for so long becuse it would change the aspect of the game to something completly different. The elimination of violence should not be done in sport because the violence is a part of the game which would only hurt its popularity. The reasons that the violence is occurring in sport is due to six theories according to John Schneider. The violence in sport mirrors the violence found in society, violence as the result of economic incentives, the influence of crowd behaviour on player violence, genetic causation for player aggression, learning theory and player aggression, and psychological stress and player violence (Lapchick 230). The theories of sport mirroring society, violence as a result of economic incentive, and the influence of the crowd behaviour are the theories that I feel are responsible for the increasing violence in sports. Most people when involved in a highly stressful situation where violence is around would probably resort to a fight to resolve their differences. In sport, why should we expect any difference. In events such as hockey games, where people are expected to hit and make body contact, sooner or later a fight will break out and the fans will yell and scream for their favourite player involved. Like anything, if people around us are applauding us for a certain act we have done, we will try to do it over so that we will continue to be praised. In sports, there are some players whose only role on the team is to protect and enforce the unwritten rules of the game such as in hockey where it is not right to fight or hit a Wayne Gretezy or Mario Lemieux type of star player. His economic incentive is to protect the team and if he does not, a new line of work might be in the future. All three of those theories relate closely to the role of the fighter in sport and why it is that he does commit the acts of violence. When leagues such as the National Football League (NFL) or the National Hockey League (NHL) are asked to try and remove the violence from their sport, they are hesitant because it is not what the fans want. Bryant and Zillman report that television viewers enjoy NFL plays more when they are rough and violent (McPherson 294). Why should these leagues remove the violence that is occurring if they are making money and keeping people employed. The fans of the games want to see these situations and eliminating the fighting aspect would hurt the support. When I watch a hockey game or any other sporting event with contact, there is nothing better than seeing a good fight take place. One of the best-selling videos in parts of the Northeastern United States has been a collection of the best fights in the NHL (McPherson 294). Even former NHL president Clarence Campbell felt that the violence taking place in his sport was called for and was reluctant to remove the fighting and the body contact because he knew that it is what the majority of hockey fans want. Fighting is a well-established safety valve for players. If violence ceases to exist, it will not be the same game. Insofar as fighting is part of the show, we certainly sell it. We do not promote it. We tolerate it and we bring it under disciplinary control which we believe satisfies the public (Snyder 201). Its better that the violence take place between two willing combatants such as in sports than in a situation involving spousal abuse where the majority of the times the female is being attacked against her consent. Allowing people not to be able vent their frustrations through sport in my mind would increase the violence that is happening away from the playing field. It is a known fact that sports does keep kids off the street and away from gangs which is why you see so many athletic and boxing clubs being run out of the inner city. It is allowing the youth to take that hostility out on a willing participant who is ready and consenting rather than against an innocent bystander. Some individuals have gone